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Citing Special Sources

Legal Documents

Note that legal cases can be varied. They can include: court cases (opinions) and legislative materials such as Congressional Hearings, US Federal Bills and Resolutions, US Federal Reports, US Federal Statues, US Federal Administrative Regulations, US State Bills and Resolutions, and US State Statutes.

They can be broadly grouped into the categories or: court cases, legislation, and legal journals.

Legislation may include enacted laws, which are entered into the US Code (USC) or state statutes and given a section number (§), and debated laws.

Legal references gathered online will include all the information listed below plus the URL and accessed date, as any other online reference.


AMA

You may need to consult section 3.16 of the AMA manual for a full elaboration of the item you are citing, but briefly here are the basics.

Use following elements where applicable:

For legal cases: First party v Second party, Reporter Volume & Number Official reporter abbreviation & First page of the case or specific case used. (Deciding court and year of decision).

For legislation:

  • Enacted laws/Statues: Official name of the act, title number, the abbreviation of the code cited, the section number (the date the code edition cited).
  • Laws under debate but not enacted: Name of the bill, abbreviated name of the chamber (S) for Senate or (HR) for House of Representatives, number of the legislative body, session number (if available), year of publication.
  • Law Journals: Cited like any other journal entry.
Examples:
Bradley v University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Ctr, 3 F3d 922, 924 (5th Cir 1993).
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 42 USC §9601-9675 (1988).
Medical Error Reduction Act of 2000, S 2038, 106th Cong, 2nd Sess (2000).

APA

You may need to consult section 7.1 of the APA manual for a full elaboration of the item you are citing, but briefly here are the basics.

Use following elements where applicable:

  • For legal cases: Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date).

  • For enacted legislation/statues: Name of Act, Volume Source § Section number (Year).

  • For debated legislation: Title, Number of the Legislative Body and Name of Legislative Body (Year)

Examples:
Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wisc. 1972).
Mental Health Systems Act, 42 U.S.C. § 9401 (1988).
RU486: The import ban and its effect on medical research: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Regulation, Business Opportunities, and Energy, of the House Subcommittee on Small Businesses, 101st Cong. 35 (1990).

Personal Correspondence

Personal correspondence is not listed in the references in either AMA or APA. You should cite it in-text, but refrain from putting it into your reference list. Personal correspondence includes:

  • lectures
  • conversations
  • letters
  • emails

While not all journals require permission from the source of the correspondence, it is good form to request permission from the source before citing them.


AMA

Note the highest academic degree where appropriate. If the affiliate of the communicator is important to the author of the message, then note it, for example if the communication came from a drug manufacturer.

Use following elements where applicable:

Name, Form of the communication, and Date, using the Month and Year.

Examples:
In a conversation with J. Doe, MD (July 2013) ...
According to a letter from J. Doe, MD in July 2013 ...
According to J. Doe, MD (oral communication, July 2013)
There have been no subsequent reactions to the exposed groups (J. Doe, MD, e-mail communication, July 13, 2013)

APA

Use following elements where applicable:

Name, personal communication, and Date, using Month, Day, Year

Examples:
J. Doe (personal communication, July 13, 2013)
In text:
According to a letter from J. Doe in July 2013 ...
According to J. Doe (personal communication, July 13, 2013)

Tables

In papers or manuscripts you shouldn't cite or reproduce a specific table from a paper, so there isn't a formal rule regarding how to give attribution when reproducing a table in a presentation. It is generally recommended to attribute the table as you would anything else. So let's say you want to attribute this table:

Table from WHO's Weekly epidemiological record Leprosy Update, 2011

Which was taken from the Leprosy update 2011 report from the WHO's Weekly epidemiological record available here: http://www.who.int/wer/2011/wer8636.pdf?ua=1


AMA

Attribute it with a number and then cite the report as you would any other report. If you need help with how to do that, see our section on citing Organization or Government reports.

Authors. Title of table or description of data. Journal/original publisher. Publication year;issue:pages.


APA

Use the standard in-text citation style, which in this case would be (WHO, 2011) then cite it at the end as you would any other report. If you need help with how to do that, see our section on citing Organization or Government reports

Name of researching organization. (year). [Brief explanation of what type of data it is, what form it is in]. Project Information. Retrieved from URL.

Theses

AMA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Thesis Dissertation: Author AA. Title of master's thesis [master's thesis]. City: University; Year.

Example:
Undeman, C. Fully Automatic Segmentation of MRI Brain Images Using Probabilistic Diffusion and a Watershed Scale-Space Approach [master's thesis]. Stockholm, Sweden: NADA, Royal Institute of Technology; 2001.

APA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Thesis from a database: Author, A.A. (Year). Title of thesis (Master's thesis). Retrieved from Name of Database (Accession or Order Number)

Unpublished Thesis: Author, A.A. (Year). Title of thesis (Master's thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

Examples:
McNiel, D.S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcholic mother (Master's thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1434728)
Bruckman, A. (1997). MOOSE Crossing: Construction, community, and learning in a networked virtual world for kids (Master's thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

Unpublished Meeting Items

Unpublished meeting items can include conferences which do not publish posters or briefs, oral or poster presentations.


AMA

Use following elements where applicable:

Name. Title of the item. Paper or poster presented at: Meeting of organization name; Month, Year; Location.

Example:
Durbin D, Kallan M, Elliott M. Risk of injury to restrained children from passenger air bags. Paper presented at: 46th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement for Automotive Medicine; September 2002; Tempe, AZ.

APA

Use following elements where applicable:

Name. (Date), using (Year, Month). Title of paper or poster. Paper or poster session presented at the meeting of Organization name, Location.

Example:
Smith, M. (2010, May). Evidence Based Practice in Public Health. Class taught at the 2010 American Public Health Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO.

Videos

Be sure to distinguish between the creator of the video, whose information may not be readily available, and the person or organization hosting the video.


AMA

Use following elements where applicable:

Author. Title of video [Video]. YouTube (or other Host). URL. Published Month Date, Year. Accessed Month Date, Year.

Example:
Fleet, D. Digital Tattoo with Dr. Anita Palepu: Open access publishing [Video]. Youtube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3umZS98MnUs. Published April 6, 2011. Accessed November 8, 2011.

APA

Use following elements where applicable:

Creator/Author. (Date published). Title of Video [Type of content, Video file, Web log content, etc.] Retrieved from URL

Examples:
Fleet, D. and Digital Tattoo. (2011, April 6). Digital Tattoo with Dr. Anita Palepu: Open access publishing [Video]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3umZS98MnUs
American Psychological Association. (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Available from http://www.apa.org/videos

Web Pages / Web Sites

AMA

Use following elements where applicable:

Author/Website Title. Article title/page title. URL. Published Month Date, year. Updated Month Date, Year. Accessed Month Date, Year. 

Example:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Website. CDC in the 21st Century. http://www.cdc.gov/about/organization/mission.htm. Updated April 14, 2014. Accessed July 25, 2014.

APA

Use following elements where applicable:

Author Last Name, Initials (or company that runs website). (Date of electronic publication or update). Title of the document [or Description of content]. Retrieved [Month day, year], from [URL]

Example:
9 News. New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved March 21, 2001, from http://news.ninemsn.com.au/health/story_13178.asp