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Forming Focused Questions with PICO: Resources

References and Further Reading

Chapter 5: Defining the review question and developing criteria for including studies. (2009). In J. Higgins, & S. Green (Eds.), Cochrane handbook for systemic reviews of interventions (5.0.1 ed.,) The Cochrane Collaboration.

Flemming, K. (1998) Asking answerable questions. Evidence-Based Nursing. 1(2), 36-37.

Formulating EBP questions. (2009). In N.A. Schmidt, & J.M. Brown (Eds.), Evidence-based practice for nurses: Appraisal and application of research (pp. 69-70) Sudbury, Mass. : Jones and Bartlett Publishers, c2009.

Making the most of existing knowledge. (2004). In P. Crookes, & S. Davies (Eds.), Research into practice: Essential skills for reading and applying research in nursing and health care (pp. 42-43) Edinburgh; New York : Bailliere Tindall, 2004.

McKibbon, K.A., & Marks, S. (2001). Posing clinical questions: Framing the question for scientific inquiry. AACN Clinical Issues: Advanced Practice in Acute & Critical Care, 12(4), 477-481.

Planning a literature search. (2006). In K. Gerrish, & A. Lacey (Eds.), The research process in nursing (pp. 95-96) Oxford; Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2006.

Stone, P.W. (2002). Popping the (PICO) question in research and evidence-based practice. Applied Nursing Research, 15(3), 197-198.

Credits and Feedback

This tutorial was created by Lisa Philpotts, RN, BSN. Your comments and suggestions on this tutorial are welcome. Please give us your feedback at http://asklib.hsl.unc.edu/.