"A secret plan by a group to do something unlawful or harmful" (oxforddictionaries). Example: According to President Trump, the idea that Russia interfered in the US election is a conspiracy
“Its goal is not to persuade readers of its truth so much as it attempts to raise doubt in the reader that anything is true."
"Information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote a political cause or point of view" (oxfordictionaries).
"A humorous or malicious deception" (oxfordictionaries). Example: "Betty White is dead."
Literally ‘lying press’; this is "a pejorative political term used largely by German political movements for the printed press and the mass media at large, when it is believed not to have the quest for truth at the heart of its coverage." (Wikipedia)
Example: The ugly history of ‘Lügenpresse,’ a Nazi slur shouted at a Trump rally by Rick Noack, Oct. 24, 2016
Trump coined this in the Art of the Deal – “an innocent form of exaggeration — and a very effective form of promotion.” (How Donald Trump plays the press, in his own words by Carlos Lozada, June 17, 2015)
Above: Photo of misshapen daisies purported to have been harmed by nuclear radiation at the Fukushima power plant in Japan.
Example: Russian government hackers do not appear to have targeted Vermont utility, say people close to investigation by Ellen Nakashima and Juliet Eilperin, Jan. 2, 2017
“The use of humour, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues.” (Oxford Reference)
"An imitation of the style of a particular writer, artist, or genre with deliberate exaggeration for comic effect." (Oxford Dictionary of English)
Genuine content shared with false context.
Example: NC Senate leader Phil Berger posts stories with altered headlines by Colin Campbell, Mar. 9, 2017
When headlines don’t match content, as with clickbait.
Example: Here’s What Happened When Six Corgi Puppies Visited a College Campus by Rebecca "Burt" Rose, Aug. 3, 2014
* all from: “Fake news. It's complicated.” https://firstdraftnews.com/fake-news-complicated/ by: Claire Wardle, First Draft February 16, 2017