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Citing Special Sources

Comments on a Journal Article

Comments on publications are becoming increasingly commonplace. With this new avenue for critical commentary on the literature, you may need to cite a comment in a paper or manuscript. Take for example this comment left in PubMed.

 

AMA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Author AA. Title of the paper [Title of the forum]. Title of the Journal Abbreviated. Year; volume(issue). URL. Published Month, Day, Year. Updated Month, Day, Year. Accessed Month, Day, Year.

Example:

Keller DL. Enough is enough [PubMed Commons]. Ann Intern Med. 2014; 160(11). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24887626#cm24887626_4774. Accessed July 28, 2014.

 

APA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Author, A.A. (Year). Title of the comment. [Peer commentary on the paper "Title of the original paper" by B. Author]. Retrieved from URL

Example:

Keller, D.L. (2014). Two large, well-designed randomized trials agree: Multivitamins reduce cancer risk in men. [Peer commentary on the paper "Enough is enough" by J. Fargnoli, J. Greenleaf, & M. Hafner]. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24887626#cm24887626_4774

Conferences Posters / Proceedings

There are two types of conference materials that you may be interested in citing: Presented papers/posters and proceedings. The key difference between the two is that proceedings are published, typically in a journal.

 

AMA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Presented paper/poster: Author AA, Author BB. Title of the poster or paper. Paper/Poster presented at Conference Name; Month Year; City, State Abbreviation.

Published Proceedings: Author AA, Author BB. Title of the poster or paper. Title of the Journal Abbreviated; Volume(Issue):Abstract number/Page Numbers.

Examples:

Liu S. Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems; May 2005; Miami, FL.
 
Herculano-Houzel S, Collins CE, Wong P, Kaas JH, Lent, R. The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.; 105: 12593-12598.

 

APA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Presented paper/poster: Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Year, Month). Title of paper or poster. Paper/Poster presented at the meeting of Organization Name, City, State.

Published Proceedings: Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Year). Title of paper or poster. Title of the Journal, Volume, Issue, Pages-Pages. URL (if applicable).

Examples:

Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, FL.
 
Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C.E., Wong, P., Kaas, J.H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 105, 12593-12598. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805417105

Dictionary

For dictionaries, it is generally bad practice to cite dictionary definitions in academic papers. But you may be discussing different uses of a word, in which case, you would need to cite a dictionary. Dictionaries often have no authors present for individual entries, but generally have editors who edit the work.

 

AMA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Author. Entry name. In: Editors , ed(s). Title of the dictionary. Edition (if applicable). Publisher's location (city, state, or, for Canada, city, province, country, or, all others, city, country): publisher's name; year of publication and /or last update.

Examples:

Cimex lenticuaris. In Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. 31st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2007.
 
Collusion. In: Sauber S, L'Abate L, Weeks G, Buchanan W, eds. The dictionary of family psychology and family therapy. 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc; 1993.

 

APA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of the dictionary (ed., pp. page number-page number). Location: Publisher.

If there are no page numbers, the chapter or entry title

Examples:

Cimex lenticuaris. (2007) In Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary (31st ed., pp. 306-310). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
 
Collusion. (1993) In S. R. Sauber, L. L'Abate, G. R. Weeks, & W. L. Buchanan (Eds.), The dictionary of family psychology and family therapy (2nd ed., pp. 64) Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Dissertations

AMA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Unpublished Dissertation: Author AA. Title of dissertation [dissertation]. City: University; Year.

Example:

Fenster, SD. Cloning and Characterization of Piccolo, a Novel Compontent of the Presynaptic Cytoskeletal Matrix [dissertation]. Birmingham: University of Alabama; 2000.

 

APA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Dissertation from a database: Author, A.A. (Year). Title of dissertation (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Name of Database (Accession or Order Number)

Unpublished Dissertation: Author, A.A. (Year). Title of dissertation (Doctoral dissertation). Name of Institution, Location.

Examples:

MMcNiel, D.S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1434728)
 
MBruckman, A. (1997). MOOSE Crossing: Construction, community, and learning in a networked virtual world for kids (Doctoral dissertation). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

Drug Databases

For databases, they can be broken down into databases with and without authors. For some databases, like UpToDate, the author(s) of the section is/are listed. You should cite the author and name the editor if available; note for UpToDate that Denise S. Basow is the editor for UpToDate so cite her rather than the section or deputy editors for the entry you are citing. For database entries without authors, you can cite the database as the author.

 

AMA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Author(s). Title of the database [database online]. Publisher's location (city, state, or, for Canada, city, province, country, or, all others, city, country): publisher's name; year of publication and /or last update. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication]. Accessed [date].

Examples:

Facts & Comparisons eAnswers. Drug Facts and Comparisons. Indianapolis, IN: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2013. http://online.factsandcomparisons.com/. Accessed January 2, 2013.
 
Micromedex Healthcare Series. DRUGDEX System. Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics, 2013. http://www.thomsonhc.com/. Accessed January 2, 2013.
 
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty; 2010. http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch.com/. Accessed September 27, 2010.
 
Wolin, KY, Coldtiz, GA. Cancer prevention. In: UpToDate, Basow, DS (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2013.

 

APA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Title of database. (n.d.). Retrieved from [URL]. City, State: Publisher.

Examples:

Facts & Comparisons eAnswers. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://online.factsandcomparisons.com/ Indianapolis, IN: Wolters Kluwer Health.
 
DRUGDEX® System. (n.d.). Retrieved January 20, 2006, from http://www.thomsonhc.com Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics
 
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://naturaldatabase .therapeuticresearch.com/ Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty.
 
Wolin, K.Y. & Coldtiz, G.A. (2013). Cancer prevention. In: D.S. Basow (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved from http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html

Drug Inserts

AMA

Use following elements where applicable:

Name of drug. [package insert]. Manufacturer's Location (Town, State): Manufacturer's Name; Year

Example:

Lamasil [package insert]. East Hanover, NJ: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp; 1993.

APA

Use following elements where applicable:

Manufacturer's Name. (Year). Name of drug. [package insert]. Manufacturer's Location (Town, State): Manufacturer's Name.

Example:

Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp. (1993). Lamasil [package insert]. East Hanover, NJ: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp.