skip navigation

Citing Special Sources

Electronic Book

Electronic books are handled very similarly to print books, except with the addition of a URL and date accessed.

 

AMA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Full books: Authors(s). Book Title. Edition. (city, state, or, for Canada, city, province, country, or, all others, city, country): publisher's name; year of publication. URL: [provide the URL and verify that the link works before submission]. Accessed [Date].

Chapters: Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editors, ed(s). Book Title. Edition. Publisher's location (city, state, or, for Canada, city, province, country, or, all others, city, country): publisher's name; year of publication. URL: [provide the URL and verify that the link works before submission]. Accessed [Date].

Examples:

Brown K, Simpson E. Obesity and breat cancer. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. URL: http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4899-8002-1. Accessed January 22, 2014.
 
Murphy F, Fawcett S, Schultz J, Holt C. Fundamental Core Concepts in the Community Engagement, Organization, and Development Process. In: Murphy F, ed. Community Engagement, Organization, and Development for Public Health Practice. New York, NY: Springer; 2013:1-24 URL: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=478522&site=ehost-live. Accessed January 22, 2014.

 

APA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Full books: Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Year). Book title (ed., pp. page number-page number). Retrieved from URL

Chapters: Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Book title (ed., pp. page number-page number). Retrieved from URL

 

If there are no page numbers, the chapter or entry title

Examples:

Brown, K.A. & Simpson, E.R. (2014). Obesity and breat cancer. Retried from http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4899-8002-1
 
Murphy, F.G., Fawcett, S.B., Schultz, J.A., & Holt, C.A. (2013). Fundamental Core Concepts in the Community Engagement, Organization, and Development Process. In: F. Murphy (Ed.). Community Engagement, Organization, and Development for Public Health Practice (pp. 1-24). Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=478522&site=ehost-live

Government/Organization Reports

AMA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Reports with named authors: Author AA. Title of the report. URL. Series Name and series number. Published Month, Day, Year. Updated Month, Day, Year. Accessed Month, Day, Year.

Institutional authors: Name of the organization. Title of the report. URL. Series Name and series number. Published Month, Day, Year. Updated Month, Day, Year. Accessed Month, Day, Year.

Example:

American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report.aspx. Accessed July 26, 2014.

 

APA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Reports with named authors: Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Year). Title of work. (Report No. XXX). Location: Publisher. OR Retrieved from url

Institutional authors: Name of the organization. (Year). Title of work. (Report No. XXX). Location: Publisher. OR Retrieved from url

Example:

American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report.aspx

Graphs

In papers or manuscripts you shouldn't cite or reproduce a specific graph from a paper, so there isn't a formal rule regarding how to give attribution when reproducing a graph in a presentation. It is generally recommended to attribute the graph as you would anything else. So let's say you want to attribute this graph:

Graph from New Zealand's National Institute for Communicable Diseases' Monthly Surveillance Report

Which was taken from the Graph from New Zealand's National Institute for Communicable Diseases' Monthly Surveillance Report available here: http://www.nicd.ac.za/assets/files/Monthly%20NICD%20Surveillance%20Report%20-%20January%202013.pdf

 

AMA

Attribute it with a number and then cite the report as you would any other report. If you need help with how to do that, see our section on citing Organization or Government reports.

 

APA

Use the standard in-text citation style, which in this case would be (NICD, 2013) then cite it at the end as you would any other report. If you need help with how to do that, see our section on citing Organization or Government reports

Images

In papers or manuscripts you shouldn't cite or reproduce a specific image from a paper, so there isn't a formal rule regarding how to give attribution when reproducing a image in a presentation. It is generally recommended to attribute the image as you would anything else. So let's say you want to attribute this image:

Graph from Children’s Food Environment State Indicator Report, 2011

Which was taken from the State-Specific Trends in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Adults --- United States, 2000--2009 report from the CDC available here: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5935a1.htm?s_cid=mm5935a1_w

 

AMA

Attribute it with a number and then cite the report as you would any other report. If you need help with how to do that, see our section on citing Organization or Government reports.

 

APA

Use the standard in-text citation style, which in this case would be (CDC, 2010) then cite it at the end as you would any other report. If you need help with how to do that, see our section on citing Organization or Government reports

In Process

In Process is the designation for manuscripts which have been submitted, but not accepted for publication. The reasoning for specifying the year the manuscript was written rather than when it was submitted is that the publication process may take enough time to cause a disparity between the year it was submitted to the publisher and the year it is published. You should not name the journal it was submitted to because the manuscript may be rejected by the journal and resubmitted to another journal which would cause your citation to be misleading and inaccurate.

 

AMA

 

In AMA, material submitted for publication but not accepted is considered unpublished data.

Use following elements where applicable in text:

A.A. Author, Degree abbreviated (unpublished data, year manuscript was written)

Example:

Similar findings have been noted by Roberts6 and H.E. Harman, MD (unpublished data, 2005) ...

 

APA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Year the manuscript was written). Title of paper. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Example:

Castle, R. (2012). Shadowing a police officer: How to be unobtrusive while solving cases in spectacular fashion. Manuscript submitted for publication.

In Press

In Press is the term used for articles which have been accepted for publication by a journal, but not formally published. There may be advanced copies of the article available from the publisher's website, but since it has been formally published is no volume or page numbers. In cases of an article being available on the publisher's website, you may need to include some additional information to complete the citation.

AMA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Author AA. Title. Journal (Abbreviated). In press.

Example:

Brown JE. The relation between citations and references. J Med Style. In press.

 

APA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Accepted for publication, but no advanced copy available: Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (in press). Title of paper. Journal.

Advance copy available: Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Year the advanced copy is posted to the journal's website). Title of paper. Journal. Advance online publication. URL for the publication or DOI

Examples:

Castle, R. (in press). Shadowing a police officer: How to be unobtrusive while solving cases in spectacular fashion. Professional Writers’ Journal.
 
Muldoon, K., Towse, J., Simms, V., Perra, O., & Menzies, V. (2012). A longitudinal analysis of estimation, counting skills, and mathematical ability across the first school year. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0028240

Issue Briefs

 

AMA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Name of Instutiton or Organization. Title of the issue brief. Issue Brief Number or identifying designation. URL. Published Month, Day, Year. Updated Month, Day, Year. Accessed Month, Day, Year.

Example:

Employee Benefit Research Institute. Sources of Health Insurance and Characteristics of the Uninsured: Analysis of the March 1994 Current Population Survey. Issue Brief 158. http://www.ebri.org/pdf/briefspdf/0295ib.pdf. Published February 1995. Accessed July 26, 2014.

 

APA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Name of the Institution. (Year, Month). Title of the issue brief (Issue Brief No. XXX). Location: Publisher or Retrieved from Institution Name website: URL

Examples:

Employee Benefit Research Institute. (1995, February). Sources of Health Insurance and Characteristics of the Uninsured: Analysis of the March 1994 Current Population Survey (Issue Brief No. 158). Washington, DC: Author
 
Employee Benefit Research Institute. (1995, February). Sources of Health Insurance and Characteristics of the Uninsured: Analysis of the March 1994 Current Population Survey (Issue Brief No. 158). Retrieved from Employee Benefit Research Institution website: http://www.ebri.org/pdf/briefspdf/0295ib.pdf