Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(2):106-107. http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 1, 2017.
Example: DOI Number
Markowitz JT & Laffel LM. Transitions in care: support group for young adults with type1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2012;29(4):522-525. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03537.x.
McGrath RT, Glastras SJ, Scott ES, Hocking SL, Fulcher GR. Outcomes for women with gestational diabetes treated with metformin: A retrospective, case-control study. J Clin Med. 2018;7(3). http://dx/doi.org/10.3390/jcm7030050
Please Note: AMA uses National Library of Medicine Journal abbreviations. Abbreviations can be searched in the PubMed Journal Database.
Author. Title of article. Name of Newspaper. Date of newspaper. Section (if applicable). Page numbers (if print). URL (if online). Accessed date (if online).
Example: Print Newspaper Article
Wolfe W. State's mail-order drug plan launched. Minneapolis Star Tribune. May 14, 2004:1B.
Example: Online Newspaper Article
Wan W. The great recession raised America's blood pressure, study finds. Washington Post. March 12, 2018. http://www.washingtonpost.com. Accessed March 13, 2018.
Lots of authors? See how to cite with one or two authors, 3-6 authors, 7 or more authors, or unknown authors in your reference list at the AMA Manual of Style Authors page.
Include as much of the following information as possible:
Author(s), (or, if no author is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site). Title of the specific item cited (if none is given, use the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of the website. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication]. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date].
Funk C & Parker K. Women and men in STEM often at odds over workplace equity. Pew Research Center Social & Demographic Trends website. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/01/09/women-and-men-in-stem-often-at-odds-over-workplace-equity/. January 9, 2018. Accessed March 13, 2018.
Food safety. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/. Updated February 7, 2018. Accessed March 13, 2018.
Author(s). Book Title. Edition number (if it is the second edition or above). City, State (or Country) of publisher: Publisher's name; copyright year.
Cueto M, Palmer, S. Medicine and public health in Latin America: a history. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2015.
Book with Editor(s)
Erwin PC, Brownson RC, eds. Scutchfield and Keck's principles of public health practice. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning; 2017.
Chapter in a Book
Riegelman RK, Kirkwood B. Social and behaviorial sciences and public health. In: Riegelman RK, Kirkwood B, eds. Public health 101: Healthy people--healthy populations. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2015.
Preedy VR, Watson RR. Handbook of disease burden and quality of life measures. New York: Springer Science. 2009. http://www.springerlink.com/content/978-0-387-78664-3. Accessed March 18, 2018.
Government or Agency Bulletins (Print)
References to bulletins published by departments or agencies of a government should include the following information, in the order indicated:
name of author (if given)
title of bulletin
place of publication
name of issuing bureau, agency, department, or other governmental division
date of publication
page numbers, if specified
publication number, if any
series number, if given.
National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services. NIH-Wide Strategic Plan, Fiscal Years 2016-2020: Turning Discovery Into Health. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2015.
Online Government Reports
Government Reports are treated the same as an electronic journal and book reference.
Apply the same rules as journal style for articles and book style for monographs.
Include the published and updated date (if available) as well as accessed date
National Cancer Advisory Board, National Cancer Institute, US Department of Health and Human Services. Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel Report 2016. https://www.cancer.gov/research/key-initiatives/moonshot-cancer-initiative/blue-ribbon-panel#ui-id-3. Published October 17, 2016. Accessed March 23, 2018.
World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2017: Monitoring Health for the SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals. http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/en/. Published 2017. Accessed March 23, 2018.
Email and Personal Communications
In parentheses, include the name and highest academic degree(s) of the person who sent the message. Also Include the date of the communication and indicate whether it was in oral or written (including email) form.
Email (In-text citation)
There have been no subsequent reports of toxic reactions in the exposed groups (Joan Smith, MD, email communication, March 29, 2004)
The Editorial Committee of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) is preparing a statement on government embargoes and scientific exchange (Margaret A. Winker, MD, WAME listserve, February 25, 2004).
In a conversation with H. E. Marman, MD (August 2005).…
According to a letter from H. E. Marman, MD, in August 2005.…
According to the manufacturer (H. R. Smith, oral communication, May 2005), the drug became available in Japan in January 2004.
Audiovisual Materials: Basic Format
Author (if available)
Format (description of media is put in [ ] - e.g. [videotape])
Publisher or distributor
Ayers S. Terrorism: Medical Response [DVD]. Edgartown, MA: Emergency Film Group; 2002.
Example: Online Video
Fleet, D. Digital Tattoo with Dr. Anita Palepu: Open access publishing [Video]. Youtube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3umZS98MnUs. Published April 6, 2011. Accessed November 8, 2011.
Author AA, Author BB. Title of the poster or paper. Paper/Poster presented at Conference Name; Month Year; City, State Abbreviation.
Liu S. Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems; May 2005; Miami, FL.
Author AA, Author BB. Title of the poster or paper. Title of the Journal Abbreviated; Volume(Issue):Abstract number/Page Numbers.
Herculano-Houzel S, Collins CE, Wong P, Kaas JH, Lent, R. The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.; 105: 12593-12598.
Theses and Dissertations
Titles of theses and dissertations are given in italics. References to theses should include the location of the university (or other institution), its name, and year of completion of the thesis. If the thesis has been published, it should be treated as any other book reference.
Fenster SD. Cloning and Characterization of Piccolo, a Novel Component of the Presynaptic Cytoskeletal Matrix [dissertation]. Birmingham: University of Alabama; 2000.
Undeman C. Fully Automatic Segmentation of MRI Brain Images Using Probabilistic Diffusion and a Watershed Scale-Space Approach [master's thesis]. Stockholm, Sweden: NADA, Royal Institute of Technology; 2001.
Drug Databases & UpToDate
For some databases, like UpToDate, the author(s) of the section is/are listed. You should cite the author and name the editor if available. For database entries without authors, you can cite the database as the author.
Use following elements where applicable:
Author(s). Title of the database [database online]. Publisher's location (city, state, or, for Canada, city, province, country, or, all others, city, country): publisher's name; year of publication and /or last update. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication]. Accessed [date].
Facts & Comparisons eAnswers. Drug Facts and Comparisons. Indianapolis, IN: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2013. http://online.factsandcomparisons.com/. Accessed January 2, 2013.
Micromedex Healthcare Series. DRUGDEX System. Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics, 2013. http://www.thomsonhc.com/. Accessed January 2, 2013.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty; 2010. http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch.com/. Accessed September 27, 2010.
Jobson MD. Second-generation antipsychotic medications: pharmacology, administration, and side effects. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed January 02, 2017.
@AMAManual. Many now accept “data” as singular. However, JAMA & Archives Journals retain the use of the plural verb with “data.” http://t.co/auYSgGb. http://twitter.com/#!/AMAManual/status/94117252009431040. Posted July 21, 2011.
Items are listed numerically in the order they are cited in the text.
Include up to six authors. If there are more than six, include the first three, followed by et al. If no author is given, start with the title.
Authors: use initials of first and second names with no spaces or punctuation.
Each reference should be cited in the text, tables, or figures in consecutive numerical order, using superscript Arabic numerals.
Use superscript numerals outside periods and commas, but inside colons and semicolons.
Avoid placing a superscript reference citation immediately after a number.