Citing Special Sources

Comments on a Journal Article

Comments on publications are becoming increasingly commonplace. With this new avenue for critical commentary on the literature, you may need to cite a comment in a paper or manuscript. Take for example this comment left in PubMed.


AMA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Author AA. Title of the paper [Title of the forum]. Title of the Journal Abbreviated. Year; volume(issue). URL. Published Month, Day, Year. Updated Month, Day, Year. Accessed Month, Day, Year.

Example:
Keller DL. Enough is enough [PubMed Commons]. Ann Intern Med. 2014; 160(11). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24887626#cm24887626_4774. Accessed July 28, 2014.

APA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of the comment. [Peer commentary on the paper "Title of the original paper" by B. Author]. URL

Examples:
Keller, D. L. (2014). Two large, well-designed randomized trials agree: Multivitamins reduce cancer risk in men. [Peer commentary on the paper "Enough is enough" by J. Fargnoli, J. Greenleaf, & M. Hafner]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24887626#cm24887626_4774

Conferences Posters / Proceedings

There are two types of conference materials that you may be interested in citing: Presented papers/posters and proceedings. The key difference between the two is that proceedings are published, typically in a journal.


AMA

Use following elements where applicable:

Presented paper/poster: Author AA, Author BB. Title of the poster or paper. Paper/Poster presented at Conference Name; Month Year; City, State Abbreviation.

Published Proceedings: Author AA, Author BB. Title of the poster or paper. Title of the Journal Abbreviated; Volume(Issue):Abstract number/Page Numbers.

Examples:
Liu S. Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems; May 2005; Miami, FL.
Herculano-Houzel S, Collins CE, Wong P, Kaas JH, Lent, R. The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.; 105: 12593-12598.

APA

Use following elements where applicable:

Presented paper/poster: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, Month Day). Title of paper or poster [Description]. Title of Conference, Location.

Published Proceedings: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of paper or poster. Title of Proceedings, Volume, Issue, Pages-Pages. DOI or URL

Examples:
Liu, S. (2005, May 25). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions [Conference session]. Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, FL.
Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 105, 12593-12598.
 
For more information, see the APA Style Guide entry on Conference Presentation References and Conference Proceeding References.

Dictionary

For dictionaries, it is generally bad practice to cite dictionary definitions in academic papers. But you may be discussing different uses of a word, in which case, you would need to cite a dictionary. Dictionaries often have no authors present for individual entries, but generally have editors who edit the work.


AMA

Use following elements where applicable:

Entry name. In: Editors , ed(s). Title of the dictionary. Edition (if applicable). Publisher's location (city, state, or, for Canada, city, province, country, or, all others, city, country): publisher's name; year of publication and /or last update.

Examples:
Cimex lenticuaris. In Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. 31st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2007.
Collusion. In: Sauber S, L'Abate L, Weeks G, Buchanan W, eds. The dictionary of family psychology and family therapy. 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc; 1993.

APA

Use following elements where applicable:

Author, A. A. (Year). Word or title of entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of the dictionary (ed., pp. #). Publisher. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

Examples:
Cimex lenticuaris. (2007). In Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary (31st ed., pp. 306-310). Saunders.
Collusion. (1993). In S. R. Sauber, L. L'Abate, G. R. Weeks, & W. L. Buchanan (Eds.), The dictionary of family psychology and family therapy (2nd ed., pp. 64). SAGE Publications, Inc.
 
For other examples, see the APA Style Blog post on Dictionary Entry References.

 

Dissertations

AMA

Use following elements where applicable:

Unpublished Dissertation: Author AA. Title of dissertation [dissertation]. City: University; Year.

Example:
Fenster, SD. Cloning and Characterization of Piccolo, a Novel Compontent of the Presynaptic Cytoskeletal Matrix [dissertation]. Birmingham: University of Alabama; 2000.

APA

Use following elements where applicable:

Dissertation from a database: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution]. Name of Database.

Unpublished Dissertation: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of Institution.

Examples:
McNiel, D. S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Publication No. 1434728) [Doctoral dissertation, California State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Bruckman, A. (1997). MOOSE crossing: Construction, community, and learning in a networked virtual world for kids [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
 
For more information, see the APA Style blog entry on Published Dissertations or Thesis References and Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis References.

 

Drug Databases

For databases, they can be broken down into databases with and without authors. For some databases, like UpToDate, the author(s) of the section is/are listed. You should cite the author and name the editor if available; note for UpToDate that Denise S. Basow is the editor for UpToDate so cite her rather than the section or deputy editors for the entry you are citing. For database entries without authors, you can cite the database as the author.


AMA

Use following elements where applicable:

Author(s). Title of the database [database online]. Publisher's location (city, state, or, for Canada, city, province, country, or, all others, city, country): publisher's name; year of publication and /or last update. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication]. Accessed [date].

Examples:
Facts & Comparisons eAnswers. Drug Facts and Comparisons. Indianapolis, IN: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2021. http://online.factsandcomparisons.com/. Accessed January 2, 2021.
 
Micromedex Healthcare Series. DRUGDEX System. Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics, 2021. http://www.thomsonhc.com/. Accessed March 20, 2021.
 
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty; 2021. http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch.com/. Accessed September 17, 2021.

APA

 

Use following elements where applicable:

Title of database. (n.d.). Publisher. URL

Examples:
Facts & Comparisons eAnswers. (n.d.). Wolters Kluwer Health. http://online.factsandcomparisons.com/
 
DRUGDEX® System. (n.d.). Truven Health Analytics. http://www.thomsonhc.com
 
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. (n.d.). Therapeutic Research Faculty. http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch.com/

Drug Inserts

AMA

Use following elements where applicable:

Name of drug. [package insert]. Manufacturer's Location (Town, State): Manufacturer's Name; Year

Example:
Lamasil [package insert]. East Hanover, NJ: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp; 1993.

APA

Use following elements where applicable:

Manufacturer's Name. (Year). Name of drug. [package insert].

Examples:
Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp. (1993). Lamasil [package insert].