In Step 4 you will use a citation manager to keep track of all the articles you have found through your literature search. This involves:
This page has information about the different citation managers available at UNC. Librarians can recommend citation managers, help you troubleshoot if you run into problems, and provide instructions for using citation managers.
Click an item below to see how it applies to Step 4: Manage Citations.
For your PRISMA flow diagram, you will need to record the number of results from each database and remove duplicate citations, then report the number of duplicates removed. For information on how to document deduplication on your PRISMA flow diagram, visit our FAQ "How do I document duplicate removal on my PRISMA flow diagram?"
Covidence can automatically detect some duplicates if you import directly from the databases you search. You can also flag citations as duplicates in the screening process.
A librarian can advise you on citation management for your systematic review, including:
Several tools are available to manage citations during a systematic review. Citation management software can be complicated to use, and databases have different capabilities when it comes to exporting citations. Librarians have expertise in citation management and can ensure that citations are managed efficiently and appropriately.
The library staff provide assistance with several citation management tools:
When choosing a citation manager for a systematic review, in addition to factors like cost, format, and storage capacity, you will also need to consider how it will perform on systematic review tasks.
It is important to note that all these citation managers are compatible with Covidence for screening. You can export a file of citations from any of these tools and import it into another tool if your review team members prefer different citation managers. Your team can also choose not to use a citation manager at all, though citation managers can help make the review process easier.
|HSL Online Guides||EndNote||Zotero||Sciwheel (formerly F1000Workspace)|
|Classes at HSL||EndNote Classes||Sciwheel Classes|
|Cost||Under $100 through UNC-CH
||Zotero is free||Free through UNC-CH|
|Notes||See EndNote Basic guide for further details on the free online version||Use this link to create account. Select No, I'm a new user then select password.|
|How is it used?||Computer
|Major citation styles?|
|Annotation of PDFs|
|Locate full-text using UNC-CH subscriptions||
Instructions for EndNote
Instructions for Zotero
Instructions for Sciwheel
|Adds citation from a PDF|
|Sharing options||X7 and above users have sharing options / email compressed libraries||See group options here
||Share unlimited projects and manuscripts|
|Free online storage||X7 and above: unlimited||700+ papers
(more space can be purchased)
|Word Processor||Microsoft Word||Microsoft Word
Manuscripts for Mac
You'll need to export files from the databases into a citation manager of choice, remove the duplicate articles, and then export the remainder into Covidence.
Before screening your articles, you should first remove any duplicate listings of citations (deduplicate) in a citation manager such as EndNote, Sciwheel, or Zotero. While you can often deduplicate in screening tools such as Covidence, they may have limited functionality for automatically identifying duplicates or for marking citations as duplicates during the screening process.
To import references from a citation manager into Covidence, you must create and export a document containing your citations and save it as an XML, CRS, or RIS text file. These files will have a .txt, .xml, or .ris file name.
Note: You can technically export from the databases into Covidence, but this is not recommended as Covidence misses some duplicate articles.