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Citing Information

Sample Reference Page

APA: Sample References Page


APA style dictates that the references page should be double-spaced, and that entries should be formatted with a hanging indent. A hanging indent is formatted so that the first line of each entry is at the left margin and subsequent lines in the same entry should be indented.


For titles starting with articles ("a" and "the"; and equivalents in other languages), the article is not considered when alphabetizing. Numerals and numbers are alphabetized as though they are spelled out.

What to include

In APA style, every reference cited in your text must be reflected in an entry on your references page. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communications with the author such as e-mails, conversations, and letters which need only be cited in text. Likewise, every item on the references page must correspond to an in-text citation somewhere in your work. Do not include works that you do not cite in the body of your paper.

Bass, R. (1997). Technology & learning: A brief guide to interactive multimedia and the study of the United States. Retrieved from
Delaroche, Paul (1829) Portrait of a Woman, [Pastel Drawing]. From European Drawings from the Collection of the Ackland Art Museum (p. 93) by Carol C. Gillham and Carolyn H. Wood, 2001, Chapel Hill: The Museum, University of North Carolina.
Denmark, F. L. (1999). Enhancing the development of adolescent girls. In N. G. Johnson & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Beyond appearance: A new look at adolescent girls (pp. 377-404). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.
Don't even think about turning here. (2002, October 3). The New York Times.
Dorman, S. M. (1997). Video and computer games: Effect on children and implications for health education. Journal of School Health, 67(4), 133-138. Retrieved from
Fechner, P. Y. (2002). Gender differences in puberty. Journal of Adolescent Health, 4, 44-48.
Franklin, M. L. (1991). A motivational approach to exercise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 73, 21-28.
Freud, S. (1950). Beyond the pleasure principle (J. Strachey, Trans.). New York, NY: Liveright. (Original work published 1920).
Gene therapy to be tried. (2002, October 11). The News & Observer, p. 9A.
Hardy, J. (Producer) & Brest, M. (Writer/Director). (2003). Gigli [Motion picture]. United States: Columbia Pictures.
Kurlansky, M. (2002). Salt: A world history. New York, NY: Walker.
Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262, 673-674.
Scholnick, E. K. (Ed.). (1999). Conceptual development: Piaget's legacy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
Scott, William Bell (Artist). (1861) Incoming Tide on the Northumberland Coast [Painting]. Chapel Hill, NC; Ackland Art Museum. Retrieved November 30, 2010, from
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries. (2007, March 23). Introduction to Library Research. Retrieved from
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries. (2007, July 12). APA Citation Style. Citing Information (section 3). Retrieved from
Wilson, T. L., Rohlfs, K. & Hüttemeister, S. (2009). Tools of radio astronomy [SpringerLink version]. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-85122-6