Chicago: Online Text
For full guidance, please consult The Chicago Manual of Style Online (access for UNC affiliates via Onyen login).
Below are examples of citations as they may appear in a bibliography. The examples are meant to be illustrative and do not encompass every possible situation. A few points to keep in mind:
- Online versions of print materials are cited identically to their print counterparts with one exception. For online materials, the DOI (Digital Object Identifier), or URL if a DOI is not available, is appended to the citation following the citation's final period.
- For electronic sources that are updated often and do not have a publication date indicated, include the "Last modified" or other revision date when available (this is often applicable to websites or wikis).
- Unlike other citation styles, Chicago style does not require the listing of an access date for formally published electronic sources. An access date should only be included if there is no date of publication or revision and should immediately precede the DOI or URL when present. Turabian style, on the other hand, does require an access date.
- If information normally included in a citation is missing, unknown, or not provided, that information should be omitted from the citation.
- If a URL or DOI does not fit on one line of your bibliography and has to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon (:) or a double slash (//); before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a period (.), a comma (,), a hyphen (-), an underline (_), a question mark (?), a number sign (#), or a percent symbol (%); or before or after an equals sign (=) or an ampersand (&). Such breaks help to signal that the URL or DOI has been carried over to the next line.
- A period is always placed at the end of a citation, even if the last element of the citation is a URL.
For general guidelines on citing electronic sources, consult The Chicago Manual of Style, sections 14.4-14.12. Citation rules for electronic sources appear under the relevant source types (e.g. books, periodicals, etc.). Consult with a reference librarian for additional assistance.
Article from a Scholarly Journal, Retrieved from an Online Database
Article from an Online Journal
Article from a Newspaper, Retrieved from an Online Database
Article from the Online Version of a Newspaper
DVD or Video
Lecture or Presentation
Images from a Website/Image Database