Evidence-Based Medicine: Review and Practice

Practice writing out PICO components and then forming a focused question about the case study of at least one of the specialties below. Choose one or several that interest you.

Medicine

For an adult male, does a lower sodium diet or lower reduced salt intake reduce hypertension?

Patient / Problem Adult Male with Hypertension
Intervention Low Salt Diet or Reduced Sodium Intake
Comparison No change in diet or salt intake
Outcome Lower Blood Pressure or Reduction in Hypertension
Type of Question Therapy
Type of Study Systematic Review of RCTs > individual RCTs > cohort studies

Anesthesiology & Surgery

What effect does preoperative carbohydrate treatment, compared with placebo or preoperative fasting, have on postoperative recovery in adult patients undergoing surgery?

Patient / Problem Adult patient undergoing surgery
Intervention Preoperative carbohydrate
Comparison Placebo OR preoperative fasting
Outcome Postoperative recovery
Type of Question Therapy
Type of Study Systematic Review of RCTs > individual RCTs > cohort studies

OB-GYN

For a 33 year old pregnant female in her second trimester, what is the evidence available to support the choice between laparoscopic appendectomy or open appendectomy with the best clinical outcome?

Patient / Problem Female, Pregnant, with Acute Appendicitis
Intervention Laparoscopic Appendectomy
Comparison Open Appendectomy
Outcome Successful removal of Appendix
Type of Question Therapy
Type of Study Systematic Review of RCTs > individual RCTs > cohort studies

Pediatrics

For a child/pediatric patient, is ibuprofen as effective as morphine during the post-operative/postfracture period?

Patient / Problem Child/Pediatric Patient, Postoperative/Postfracture Pain Management
Intervention Ibuprofen OR Non-Narcotic Analgesic
Comparison Morphine OR Opioid Analgesics
Outcome Safe and Effective Pain Management
Type of Question Therapy
Type of Study Systematic Review of RCTs > individual RCTs > cohort studies