Evidence-Based Medicine: Review and Practice

How to appraise an article

Once you have gathered the evidence, you will need to appraise the evidence for its relevance, reliability, validity, and applicability​

Ask questions like:When you appraise, you should evaluate for relevance, reliability, validity, and applicability

Relevance:  ​
  • Is the research method/study design appropriate for answering the research question?​
  • Are specific inclusion / exclusion criteria used? ​
Reliability:  ​
  • Is the effect size practically relevant? How precise is the estimate of the effect? Were confidence intervals given?  ​
Validity: ​
  • Were there enough subjects in the study to establish that the findings did not occur by chance?    ​
  • Were subjects randomly allocated? Were the groups comparable? If not, could this have introduced bias?  ​
  • Are the measurements/ tools validated by other studies?  ​
  • Could there be confounding factors?   ​
Applicability:  ​
  • Can the results be applied to my organization and my patient?   ​